The role of fertilizers in increasing agricultural productivity

The role of fertilizers in increasing agricultural productivity
Increasing rice productivity is possible through a combination of various efforts, namely by reducing losses and increasing yields. These two things, according to Bambang Widjajanto, Agro Resources Business Development Director, a distributor of agrochemical products, are different but interrelated.
The same thing was also conveyed by Prof. Iswandi Anas when found. The Professor of the Faculty of Agriculture said, fertilization was one of the determining factors in increasing rice productivity and quality, beetroot productivity and quality as influenced by organic fertilizer. More specifically, the Head of Soil Biotechnology Division of the Faculty of Agriculture of stated, 13 of the 16 nutrients needed by plants, contained in organic fertilizer. To reduce yield losses, he continued, there are pesticides that play a role in suppressing pest attacks. While in increasing yields, fertilization plays an important role, in addition to selecting varieties and adding new land.

Organic Fertilizer Become the Main Fertilizer
Prof. Iswandi explained, organic fertilizer was obtained from the decomposition of plants and animals. Previously, the definition of fertilizer that had developed among the community and farmers was only chemical fertilizer. This biotechnology expert also said that organic fertilizer should be the main fertilizer.
The reason is, organic fertilizer can improve almost all physical properties, chemical properties, and biological properties of the soil. While chemical fertilizers only partially improve. Furthermore, he agreed, chemical fertilizers only provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and calcium (K). Whereas organic fertilizer is able to provide more elements, such as potassium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and so on. Then, the farmers themselves can make organic fertilizer.
The same thing was said by Dr. Husnain, Head of the Soil Research Institute, Balitbangtan, Ministry of Agriculture. According to the woman who is familiarly called Uut, artificial chemical fertilizers only provide one to several types of nutrients. While organic fertilizer, for chemical properties, the soil is able to provide macro and micro nutrients. In addition, organic fertilizer increases the cation exchange capacity of the soil and can form complex compounds with metal ions such as Al, Fe, and Mn, so that these metals are non-toxic.

Iswandi underlined, the use of chemical fertilizers should be reduced and the use of organic fertilizers should be increased nationally. The existence of organic and chemical fertilizers, he said, need not be contested but adjusted accordingly. This is related to the C-organic content that is in the soil.
N, P, K fertilizers are still used but the amount is reduced. From the usual dosage of 600 - 800 kg / ha by farmers, now it is enough 100 kg - 200 kg / ha, then the rest can rely on organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizers do not run out in a single growing season. The next season is still left in the soil and so on until it is added again.
"For example, the use of NPK is only 100 kg consisting of 50 kg of urea, 25 kg SP-36 and 25 kg KCl, while quality organic fertilizer can be one ton per ha. So far, farmers know urea as the main fertilizer. Even though organic fertilizer should be the main fertilizer, "he said.
The positive benefits of organic fertilizer are agreed by Yoyo Suparyo, a senior rice farmer in Pamanukan, Subang, West Java. Speaking with AGRINA, Yoyo told me that he started using organic fertilizer the last two planting seasons last year. He admitted that awareness of utilizing organic fertilizer is strong because rice productivity which has reached 12-13 tons / ha of dry grain harvest (GKP) has decreased. Though additional costs for fertilizer and other nutrients remain.
"Organic fertilizers are still mixed with chemical fertilizers. Whereas for soil enhancers use organic and biological fertilizers. Initially began to use 1 ton / ha, then 2 tons / ha and the results began to appear. "Productivity which had dropped 8 tons / GKP, slowly rose to 9.8 tons / ha GKP," he explained.

The Big Role of Silica Fertilizers
Besides the importance of using organic fertilizer, the role of the silica (Si) element also influences rice productivity. Although it is not an essential nutrient, Bambang said, Si is one of the elements needed. "Silica fertilizer has not been widely used, although overseas such as Japan is compulsory," he pointed out.
The results of using Si in the field prove that productivity can increase by up to 20%. Aside from being a fertilizer, explained Bambang, Si is also a soil enhancer that helps distribution of nutrients. How it works, when entering into the soil, silica will bind with Fe so that P is available to plants. The absorbed P will help root growth so that important elements can be absorbed by the root.
Rice is a silica accumulator. However, rice still needs Si. For plants, Si plays a role in the formation of plant cell walls so that plants are more resistant to disease pests because it is harder. "Silica is indeed widely available in nature. The problem is, this silica can be used and reactive in the soil or not, "he explained.

The concept of wise forest management

The concept of wise forest management
Forest is an area that is overgrown with thick trees and other plants. Forest is a closed land use system and there is no human intervention, the entry of limited human interests such as harvesting forest products for subsystems does not interfere with forests and forest functions. Environmental education and public awareness for forest sustainability, Population pressure and increasing economic pressure, resulting in increasingly intensive forest product harvesting (logging). Deforestation is also carried out for other purposes, for example to convert into agricultural or plantation fields. As a result of these forest disturbances will cause changes in forest function. These changes emphasize more towards economic functions by ignoring social functions or ecological functions.
The concept of wise forest management, must restore the overall function of the forest (ecological function, social function and economic function) with more emphasis on the role of government, the role of society and the role of the private sector. Synergic steps from the three components (government, community and private sector) will realize the overall function of the forest which creates security and forest preservation.
The development of forestry in the past has changed many faces of the world's forests. Forest fires, illegal logging, shifting cultivation and decreasing biodiversity are stories that are inherent in the world's forests. These phenomena have influenced the story of the nation in the life of the international community. Damage that occurs to one ecosystem can cause further impacts on the flow between ecosystems and other surrounding ecosystems. Specifically for mangrove and seagrass communities, severe disturbance due to human activities means the destruction and destruction of the ecosystem. Forest destruction is triggered by human needs that are increasing and developing, so things happen that can damage the world's forests.

Forests are not only beneficial for animal species, plant species, or certain ethnic groups that have died. There are at least three benefits of forests that have global influence on the earth as a wider habitat. The three benefits are: forests as watersheds; forest as a giant umbrella; forests as the lungs of the world; and forests as primary needs.
Forests are not only beneficial for animal species, plant species, or certain ethnic groups that have died. There are at least three benefits of forests that have global influence on the earth as a wider habitat. The three benefits are: forests as watersheds; forest as a giant umbrella; forests as the lungs of the world; and forests as primary needs.
As water catchment sites, forests are effective retention areas and water catchment areas. The number of porous topsoil layers and the number of roots that function to hold the soil, optimizing the function of the forest as a water retention and catchment area. Damage to the forest can disturb the function of the forest as a water barrier. Even areas and habitats around damaged forests can be flooded at any time. In addition, the destruction of the forest will disrupt the function of the forest as a catchment area. The absence of this recharge area can cause scarcity of clean and hygienic water, or ready-to-use water. In addition to its function as a water catchment, the forest also functions as a 'giant umbrella'. The distance between one plant and other plants, as well as the average height of trees in all locations, is useful to protect the soil surface from heavy rain.

Without this raksasa giant umbrella ’, loose land that receives high rainfall will gradually erode and experience erosion. Thus, in this way, the surrounding areas will be vulnerable to landslides. If the benefits of forests as catchment areas are related to the balance of water conditions, if their function as a 'giant umbrella' is related to surface soil conditions, then as 'the lungs of the world' the forests are 'responsible' for the balance of temperature and climate.

Looking at its location, the earth's forests are divided into three major groups: tropical forests, temperate forests, and boreal forests. Brazil and the World are the countries with the largest hectares of tropical forests in the world. The total area of the world's forests is 140.3 million hectares, with details: 30.8 million hectares of protected forest; 18.8 million hectares of nature reserves and national parks; 64.3 million Ha of production forest; 26.6 million Ha of forest allocated for conversion to agriculture, housing, transmigration and so on. From these data and details, it means that around 54% of the total land area of our country is forest.

Damage that occurs to one ecosystem can cause further impacts on the flow between ecosystems and other surrounding ecosystems. Forest destruction is triggered by growing and growing human needs, so that there are things that can damage the world's forests Forest management is very important for preservation and preservation because of the many functions of the forest as follows:
1. Prevent erosion; in the presence of forests, rainwater does not directly fall to the surface of the soil, and can be absorbed by plant roots.
2. Economic resources; through the supply of wood, sap, flowers, animals, and so on.
3. Germplasm sources; the diversity of animals and plants in the forest enables the acquisition of gene diversity.
4. Maintain water balance in the rainy season and dry season.

With the formation of topsoil in the forest, the soil becomes loose. Loose soil is able to hold rainwater so that it seeps into the ground, water absorption will be held by tree roots. Thus, in the rainy season the water is not excessive, whereas in the season

The use and processing of fuel from Jatropha plant

The use and processing of fuel from Jatropha plant
Basically, countries in the world are still dependent on the use of fuels derived from petroleum and fossil energy, where the source is non-renewable energy, so its availability is sometimes uncertain. Large scale jatropha production to meet the anticipated biofuel demand, This will have an impact on the country's economic activities, especially in the transportation sector and the use of mechanical power for production.

In addition, the economic crisis that hit the world community urged various countries to explore and exploit local potential in order to save the country's economy, so as not to become too late in the global economic crisis.

The world as a consumer of fuel users must be more intensive to explore alternative energy sources whose direction supports production activities, so as to reduce their dependence on petroleum and fossil energy.

Jatropha curcas is a non-food commodity as a renewable energy source (Renewable energy). Vegetable oil from Jatropha curcas can be processed into substitutes or substitutes for petroleum and fossil fuels, such as diesel, kerosene and fuel oil.

In 2006 the government determined that the use of jatropha as a substitute for diesel fuel and cassava as a premium substitution. Both of these commodities are expected to replace 10% of diesel use and 10% of premium use (Kompas, 17 October 2005).

Biodiesel Processing
Actually the use of vegetable oil (biodiesel) has begun since 1898, when Rudolf Diesel invented a diesel engine. He uses vegetable oil from groundnut (Arachis hipogaea) as fuel for his diesel engine.

Natural castor oil commonly called Crude Jatropha Curcas Oil (CJCO) is made from Jatropha curcas kernel. The researchers refer to natural jatropha oil as Straight Jatropha Oil (SJO), Unmodified Vegetable Oil (UVO) or Straight Jatropha Oil (SJO).

Oil extraction from Jatropha seeds can use a pressing device or a milker that is moved by human hands or machine. A world whose geographical location consists of several islands should be recommended using a milker made with simple technology. The reason is that this tool can be applied by the community itself as an agro-industry independence program so that it can increase the independence of the fuel supply because it is locally produced. Likewise, the maintenance / cultivation of Jatropha curcas.

Biodiesel Emissions
Almost all chemical components in biodiesel are low when compared to petrodiesel (diesel). Sometimes biodiesel does not contain SO2 compounds, although there is a relatively small value (<15 ppm). Likewise with carbon monoxide (CO) produced quite low.

According to some references Sulfur is a trigger for SPM (Solid Particulate Matter) emissions and black smoke. SPM particles are carcinogenic or cancer cell triggers. Vehicle engines that use diesel fuel produce more SPM emissions compared to biodiesel, so biodiesel can be said to be an environmentally friendly fuel. In addition, biodiesel is also friendly to the engine, especially on the piston because it has lubrication.

Utilization of Jatropha Oil as a Solar Substitution
The use of Jatropha curcas oil (CJCO) as a substitute for diesel fuel (petrodiesel) can reduce the budget allocation for purchasing petroleum and fossil energy. In addition, the substitution can reduce emissions produced by diesel fuel, such as SO2, CO, NO2, benzene and other toxic chemicals.

In the development of jatropha oil management must be more serious, so that the volume of substitution to petrodiesel can reach 50% (50% biodiesel: 50% petrodiesel). As stated in the previous paragraph that to achieve the target of 50%, local production of castor oil is needed. Jatropha oil production is carried out in several regions by using simple-made production equipment so that it can be applied by the community themselves. The role of the government in this case is very helpful in the procurement of these simple production equipment.

Jatropha oil production needs to be seen as important, because it will greatly assist fuel consumers in various economic sectors, both in the transportation, agriculture, fisheries, processing industries and so on. The substitution effort will produce results that the needs for staples for the community can be met at a relatively cheap price.

So it takes a more serious role and government policy in an effort to achieve maximizing the substitution of biodiesel into petrodiesel, so that fuel prices are more affordable and more towards environmentally friendly. In addition, community readiness and participation is also needed in the provision of raw materials (jatropha curcas) and skills in the process of extracting castor oil.

The concept of privatization of the public sector

The concept of privatization of the public sector
1. The concept of privatization of the public sector
2. The public sector privatization dilemma
3. Public corporate social responsibility

The concept of privatization of the public sector
Privatization of Public Enterprises: Advantages and Disadvantages. Privatization (another term: denationalization) is the process of transferring ownership from public property to private property. The opposite of privatization is nationalization.
Privatization is often associated with service-oriented or industrial companies, such as mining, manufacturing or energy, although it can also be applied to any asset, such as land, roads, or even water.
In theory, privatization helped form a free market, the development of capitalist competition, which its supporters thought would provide a more competitive price to the public. On the contrary, socialists consider privatization to be a negative thing, because providing important services to the public to the private sector will eliminate public control and result in poor service quality, due to savings made by companies in getting profits.
The concept of privatization policy is actually part of the deregulation policy in general and the continuation of the deregulation process itself. In the case of privatization in Dunia, the policy was born and started from the downturn in the Dunian economy due to the monetary crisis which has developed into a multidimensional crisis and caused government companies to experience difficulties in continuing their business, so that efforts are needed to save the business to continue to exist.
Basically, the mission of the privatization policy is good and can be justified if it sticks to the goals and objectives that are essential. The purpose of privatization when abstracted will be several points. First, increasing efficiency, second, improving the quality of public services and third, reducing and releasing direct intervention by the government.

In the era of globalization, the demands of competition and efficiency in economic activity are absolutely essential. To campaign for "competition and efficiency", strong synergy between companies is needed. The spirit of "competition" is the best way to ensure that goods and services desired by consumers can be provided at the lowest economic cost. Privatization also gives freedom to choose "market forces" that can provide ongoing pressure to improve efficiency. Past protections and excessive intervention have influenced freedom of competition. To be able to compete in the free market, companies must improve management professionalism in order to achieve high efficiency.
As for economically, there are two theoretical approaches in understanding privatization namely, from a radical point of view which understands privatization as an affirmation of ownership rights. The basis for this view stems from the theory of property rights (the theory of property rights) and the theory of public choice (the theory of public choice); secondly, a more moderate view, the usual view that privatization as an instrument to place precisely the third economic sector.
The third approach is the political-economic approach, seeing privatization as a political project from the dominant class for capital accumulation. In this sense, privatization does not only mean a shift in the role and function of the government to the private sector, but also a project to weaken and control the power of the working class. That is why, in this perspective as part of the neoliberal doctrine, the main idea behind the privatization project is that the private credo is good, public is bad, so a redefinition of the role of the state in the market is needed. In this framework, privatization means "... transfer of industrial ownership from the government to the private sector which implies that ownership dominance will move to private shareholders."
In a concept of privatization there are terms of objectives and methods, as for a number of objectives or methods including

The World Bank in its recommendation to the World government stated, the purpose of privatization is as follows:
1. Increase efficiency and investment under the management of private management;
2. Increasing privatized BUMN revenue as a change in the role of the government from the owner of a business entity to a regulator;
3. Encouraging the private sector to further develop and expand its business in public services; and
4. To promote the development of national capital markets.

The British Ministry of Finance package on privatization, published in 1986, states that the privatization program has two main objectives:
1. To promote "competition" and increase "efficiency," inter-company synergy must be done. The spirit of "competition" is the best way to ensure that goods and services desired by consumers can be provided at the lowest economic cost;
2. Privatization programs are often used to promote broader ownership of shares to workers and the public.

Based on his review of the implementation of privatization carried out by the Thatcher government in England, Safri Nugraha, in his doctoral dissertation explained the seven goals of privatization:
1. Reducing the influence of government in the industry;
2. Increasing efficiency both in private companies and in the public sector;
3. Reducing Public Sector Borrowing Requirements (PSBR);
4. Reducing problems in the public sector regarding bargaining over wages through weakening trade unions;
5. Expanding the distribution of ownership;
6. Encouraging the division of labor ownership;
7. To obtain political advantage.

Again quoting William L. Megginson, the aims of privatization are five:
1. Increase new revenue for the government;
2. Encouraging economic efficiency;
3. Reducing government interference in the economy;
4. Providing opportunities to introduce competition; and
5. Developing the country's capital market.

To achieve the goal of privatization, the method of privatization is very important to consider. Sometimes, one method is suitable to be applied in one country but, it fails to be applied in another country. The motivation of the government and the political situation of a country largely determine the choice of the best privatization method. By understanding the method of privatization, we can avoid the empty debate about the meaning of privatization. So far what is often interpreted as privatization is the sale of public assets to private parties which can be seen in the composition of asset ownership, for example. So, if there are no transactions, privatization will not occur.
As explained earlier, privatization is an effort to reduce the Government's direct involvement in economic affairs. It is hoped that the government can focus more on the regulatory function. With the presence of the private sector in the ownership of shares of public companies, this will prevent arbitrary interference from various parties so that the performance of SOEs can be improved. If the rules of privatization are applied properly and correctly, the benefits obtained are:
1. Transparency in the body of public companies will be realized.
2. Management of BUMN / Public companies will be more independent and independent of bureaucratic and political intervention.
3. Wider marketing access.
4. The acquisition of new equity allows public companies to develop their businesses better.
5.BUMN has the opportunity to obtain technology transfer, from production technology to the latest management technology.

Adapting to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector

Adapting to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector
This climate change must be realized has an impact on human life. Agriculture is one sector that is very vulnerable to climate change. The impact has an impact on Food Production which impact on National Food security.

To reduce the negative impacts of climate change, agricultural actors must make adaptation efforts in their farming. Awareness and information diffusion of climate change adaptation strategies among farmers, "Adapting" to climate change in the agricultural sector is intended with the aim of providing information about climate change and its impact on the agricultural sector, as well as technological innovations in adaptive agriculture.

Hopefully this information and knowledge presence can be useful for agricultural development actors, especially Field Agricultural Extension Workers (PPL), as counseling material for the main farmers in their respective regions. Understanding Adaptation in general efforts to adjust conditions and technology with climate change events. According to the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency;

A process to strengthen and develop strategies to anticipate the effects of climate change and implement them, so as to reduce negative impacts and take negative benefits. CLIMATE HAS ALREADY CHANGED? We'll see; (1). Changes in climate that affect changes in rainfall patterns, rising air temperatures, and rising sea levels.

As a result, frequent floods or droughts occur. (2). Environmental factors affect agricultural behavior such as cropping patterns and time, potential for floods and drought, plant pests, and selection of appropriate plant varieties. So the hope of climate change is that efforts must be made quickly to "Adapt" to climate change. Make no mistake, the effects of climate change also have an impact on poor nutrition, flooding, hunger, drought and poverty.

In science there is the term EL-Nino (Dry Month) and El-Nina (Wet Month) the author will not explain in detail but the point is that with this phenomenon that will result in a dry and rainy season there is a shift, as a result many questions we often hear ; why hasn't it rained even though it's been so many months? Why is the drought long? why when it rains, too much does not stop? Because the climate is uncertain, if it was confirmed in April and October we / farmers have started planting again, but now it is not possible, because there is no rain / unstable rain.

And now you cannot predict climate for planting. Then what is the impact on agriculture? Land damage, yield decline, quality and production can even cause crop failure, impacts on land and water resources, impacts on livestock, plantation and forestry commodities, impacts on crop production (withdrawal from the beginning of the rainy season, longer dry season, shifting planting time, season and cropping patterns, and declining land quality).

How to reduce the adverse effects of climate change? We / farmers / instructors must adapt farming methods to these altered conditions in the cool language of "Adaptation", namely; According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), climate change, which is one of the three pillars of the Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA), applies the principles of agriculture in a climate conscious and environmentally friendly manner;

(1). Increase productivity and income in a sustainable manner, (2). Adaptation and building resilience to climate change, (3) Reducing the production of environmentally friendly greenhouse gas (GHG) technology. With three CSA principles namely; farming activities in an environmentally friendly manner do not cause new pollution. The farming system utilizes treated agricultural waste as an input source for land. Food supply chains implement the distribution and supply chain of agricultural products efficiently.

At present I am specialized in providing information on food crops (rice) as a consideration to be applied by farmers and information for agricultural extension workers. Adaptation Technology for Rice Crops (Oryza Sativa) Short-lived superior varieties: Avoid drought-gripping plants and suitable to be developed in areas with relatively shorter rainfall periods such as: varieties = Dodokan, silugonggo, inpari 1, inpari 12, inpari 12, inpari 13 , inpari 18, inpari 19, inpari 20.

Randamen Tolerant Varieties: Reducing the risk of crop failure due to flooding and suitable to be developed in areas prone to flooding such as: varieties = Inpari 4, inpari 5, inpari 29 rendamen, inpari 30 chierang sub 1.

Drought tolerant varieties: suitable to be developed in areas with short rainy periods such as: Varieties = Inpari 18, Inpari 19, Inpari 20, Inpago 4, Inpago 5, Inpago 6, Inpago 8.

Salinity Tolerant Varieties (Salt): Suitable to be developed in areas of coastal paddy that experience salt such as: Varieties = Banyuasin, Inpari 34 salinagritants.

The information and varieties above are recommended by the Research and Development Agency, the Agricultural Research and Development Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture and reproduced by the Central Java Agricultural Technology Assessment Center, for information, knowledge and to be applied for the needs and welfare of farmers and agricultural extension workers who want to develop the agricultural sector. Hopefully useful for those who need.

Understanding Newspapers - Characteristics, Functions, Characteristics, Traits

Understanding Newspapers - Characteristics, Functions, Characteristics, Traits
Understanding Newspapers - Characteristics, Functions, Characteristics, Characteristics, Examples: Newspapers are printed sheets containing reports that occur in the community with features published periodically, are general, term and actual contents about anything and anywhere in the world for readers to know.
In the beginning, “How Online Newspaper Headlines Sway Opinion”, newspapers were often identified with the press, but because of the broad understanding of the press, where electronic media are now categorized with the media as well. For this reason, in a narrow sense, the press only covers print media, one of which is the newspaper.

According to Onong Uchjana Effendy, "Newspapers are printed sheets containing reports that occur in the community with features published periodically, are general, term and actual content about anything and anywhere in the world for readers to know."
The importance of the newspaper lies in its ability to present news and ideas about the development of society in general, which can influence modern life as it is today.
In addition, newspapers are able to convey something at any time to their readers through educational newspapers, information and interpretations on several things, so that most of the people depend on the press to obtain information.

Characteristics of Newspapers
In general, when we talk about the press as a printed mass media, in a narrow sense, namely newspapers. There are four characteristics that can be said as conditions that must be met by newspapers, including:

Which implies dissemination to the public or to the public. Because it is intended for the general public, the contents or information in this newspaper consists of various interests relating to the public. For this reason, a publication which is the same as a newspaper cannot be called a newspaper if it is only aimed at a group of people or groups.

Periodicity (Periodicity)
Which means regularity in publishing. This regularity can be once a day or one or two times a week. Because of its regularity in publishing, book publishers cannot be categorized as newspapers even though their contents concern the public interest because they are not distributed periodically and periodically.

Universality (universality)
Which means diversity and diversity. Its contents come from all over the world. For this reason, if a periodical publication only specializes in a profession or aspect of life, such as medical, architectural, cooperative or agricultural magazines, it does not include newspapers.

It is true that the periodical is addressed to the general public and published periodically, but if the content is only about one aspect of life then it cannot be included in the newspaper category.

According to the original word actuality, it means "now" and "the real situation". Both are very closely related to news broadcast by newspapers.
News is a report about an event that is happening now, in other words a report about an event that just happened and what was reported must be true. But what is meant by actuality as a feature of newspapers is first, namely the speed of the report, without ignoring the importance of the truth of the news.
Matters published by other print media may contain truth, but they are not necessarily about something that has just happened. Among print media, only newspapers are broadcasting new things.

Building Peace Through Information and Communication Technology

Building Peace Through Information and Communication Technology
Information and communication technology can provide great assistance in efforts to build lasting peace by helping people communicate, see information, make decisions, and understand each other better. Teresa Crawford and Skip Cole provide the following explanation:
Peace and reconciliation the anti dote to global technological, Peace is not created with one action: a ceasefire, agreement or reconciliation is only the starting point between the time of war and eternal peace. True peace is built over time, with different processes and approaches that move from conflict to lasting peace relations. This requires action at various levels by different people, in different ways and at different points in a conflict.
Activities can be as varied as alternative dispute resolution (arbitration, mediation, negotiation), reconciliation, peace (both civil and military), conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction. Also increased institutional and organizational capacity, demobilization and reintegration, monitoring and advocacy, conflict transformation, psycho-social rehabilitation and rule of law. This peace method, as part of a long-term cohesive strategy, is followed by avoiding both targets of the root causes of conflict and violence.
Information and communication technology (ICT) - both hardware and software that helps people communicate, understand data, and learn through tools such as computers, the internet, cellphones and more - can provide extraordinary assistance in implementing these peace methods. As an example :

In the World, large-scale demonstrations that were mobilized via cellphones and text messages were the main factors that forced President Joseph Estrada to resign, thus bringing about change without large-scale violence.
The United States Army pioneered a hand held system containing maps and descriptions of civilians and militias. This is to help them gain a deeper understanding of the communities in which the US Army acts as a peacekeeping force. This handheld device is also intended to be used by humanitarian aid organizations working in places recovering from the conflict.
During the battle in Burundi, online discussion groups organized by Burundinet and the Burundi Youth Council allowed Burundians from different backgrounds to discuss the situation, the root causes of the debate and find ways to move forward because it was difficult to meet physically.

Understand video messages from former neighbors and friends and broadcast via public access channels throughout the former Yugoslavia countries that allow people who lost contact in the war to reconnect.
Like all technology, this tool is only a means to an end. In order to effectively use it, it is important to start by thinking about the goals of your peace efforts. What kind of peace are you trying to build? With whom do you want to build peace? Where do you want to focus your efforts? When is the best time to mediate? What do you want to achieve? The best way you can reach your target audience?

In general, information and communication technology can be used in peace efforts in six different ways:
To provide information
To help people process information
To improve decision making
To reduce scarcity
To support relationships
To help people understand each other

Let's consider how technology can help peace one by one as follows:
Providing Information
Information can benefit greatly in peace operations by strengthening relationships between individuals and communities and increasing their ability to share, learn and interact with each other. Broader information also means better ability to understand the situation and act. As an example:

Internet connectivity. The internet provides a huge advantage for sharing information. However, internet connection is a challenge in many places in the world whereas increasing the flow of information means increasing connectivity. A number of tools allow users to connect to the internet, where commercial businesses cannot or will not provide services. For example, the Inveneo Communication System was designed to provide computing, internet access and VoIP telephony to areas with few resources and less climate friendly. This reliable communication hub can run on solar power, electricity networks or be supported by other means such as pedal power. In the turbulent provinces of Uganda, Inveneo linked aid organizations and greatly increased the efficiency and effectiveness of their work, while at the same time building a foundation for future use of ICT after the conflict ended.
Mobile technology, cellphones and personal data assistants (PDAs). Personal communication devices can dramatically increase the flow of information, even in places where other ICTs are not available. For example, in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, the UmNyango Project uses SMS technology to enable them to access their information and reports of violence against women and children with their cellphones, as well as violations of women's rights to their own land.
Geographic information system (GIS). GIS systems - software that captures, stores and analyzes data related to geographical locations - can be used to help track refugee movements, maintain border observations (which are often not clearly seen from the ground) and record where atrocities have occurred. Because names and borders often change in turbulent areas, making electronic maps constructed using geographic coordinates is far more reliable than paper maps.
Satellite imagery. Amnesty International now invites global citizens to monitor high-resolution satellite imagery focused on 12 villages in high-risk areas in Sudan, through the Eyes on Darfur website. Although the use of new technology for Amnesty needs to be respected, one clear trend - this technology will make it more difficult for a regime to "act in the dark".
E-mail discussion and forum. E-mails and forums on the website can connect the community and encourage conversations to take place, even among residents directly involved in the conflict. Throughout the war in the former Yugoslavia, E-mail lists and forums were formed both within ethnic and inter-community communities to improve the quality and quantity of information that arose from the conflict. More formal online communities such as the Democracy Forum support community discussion and debate, increase government transparency and engage citizens in dialogue on issues that are important to them.